Diseases

Human memory: How does the brain handle informations and what is the role of memory?

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Definition

Memory is a phenomenon in the brain with a wide range of simple perception of faces, images, or letters that make words into complex sets of events previously experienced by humans. This includes remembering “How did it happen?”, “What is the order of events?” And other details related to the .event
Memory is the ability to store information and experiences and recall it in what is called “remembering”.
At the biological level, memory is an electrochemical changes in the nerve cell to produce chemicals

called neurotransmitters that transfer the nerve signal from one cell to another.

human brain and memory
human brain and memory

Declarative mind memory as facts and events.

What is the purpose of memory?

The stages of storing information at all levels and types contribute to maintain the integrity of the brain from the enormous flow of information. Human is exposed to a large amount of details during his daily basis that consist as inputs that need to be processed, to deal with them and act upon them. The brain filters these informations and avoids overlapping between them. [1]https://human-memory.net/memory-storage/

Types of memory

Depending on (the extent of time to retain the information) memory is mainly divided into three types:

Sensory memory

It is capturing information from the surrounding environment through the senses (hearing, sight, smell, taste, and touch). It also plays a role in information processing, and it represents the first stage of the memory-making process.

Short term memory

It is the memory that holds information until its purpose is done. For example, remembering a group of numbers until you write them down on a paper, or remembering the move you are going to make in a chess game, or remembering the list you are going to buy from the grocery store.
Short-term memories are stored in the frontal lobe in the brain, which is a complex part that keep developing while growth, often completes at the age of twenty.
There are two fates for the short-term memories: either turn into long-term memories, or to be forgotten.
Enough thinking about this type of memories and linking it with smells, sounds or images may lead to their transfer to long-term memories.

Long-term memory

It is an aggregates of short-term memories that have been played many times in the hippocampus, which is the .central switching point for memories in the brain, as it is also classifies memories into different sensory types
:There are two types of long-term memories
Non-declarative mind memory like walking and bike riding.

Memory at the biological level

The storage of memories in our brain is done on a physical level. Memory is a specific communication between certain neurons. These neurons are placed in a specific site in the brain, which means that they are also present at the atomic level. They are organically present, thus they are based on carbon.
Memories are created by the transmission of information by chemical factors that are secreted by neurons from the cortex and is – rich in neurons – to the hippocampus. When a specific piece of memory is called, the information is transferred from the hippocampus to the cortex. [2]https://www.fau.eu/2019/11/12/news/research/how-the-brain-stores-memories/

Nerve cell
Nerve cell

Information processing

Is the way which brain deals with information. It includes retrieving information from the hippocampus or from the frontal lobe.
There are three stages to preserve the information which were mentioned previously, and four steps to process the information.

Attending

Being in the environment in which information or experience is gained through the different senses in the body. Focusing on what is happening around you prepares the brain for that by creating a memory.

Encoding

The brain begins to encode information during an experiment when attention is given and assigned importance to it, so lack of attention does not lead to encryption even with attendance. It is a stage similar to the observations in the brain.

Taking notes
Taking notes

Storing

By recording the information in the memory, it is similar to creating a new file. There is a place to store memories that are linked together or synchronized together. The physical part of the memory is made as the bonding between the neurons attached to it increases.

Retrieving

In other words, “remember.” It’s like opening an existing file and looking at its contents, and it’s not just a limited number of times. The more times the information is retrieved, the easier it will be to remember it later.
Information retrieval plays a major role in enhancing memory, because this process increases the strength of the pathways between the neurons attached to it. The greater the strength of this bonding, the more memory in the brain is exchanged. [3]http://quranic.uobabylon.edu.iq/lecture.aspx?fid=19&lcid=55352

What if the memory does not exist?

In the event that a person cannot form a memory, he will likely be unable to perceive any of the things that are happening around him. Everything will be hazy and strange. He will not be able to absorb or deal with his surroundings, nor to create experience or even personality.

Forgetting

The process of forgetfulness, or how it happened, was not fully understood. But, based on the hypothesis that memories are formed at the molecular level, the disintegration of these molecules may lead to the loss of information associated with it, or perhaps its alteration. This may affect the accuracy and validity of the memory, and this may mean that the memory may become limited or even wrong.
The brain also stores everything that happens at a steady pace. Consequently, it constantly updates itself, modifies and builds on previously existing information. This contributes greatly to a person’s ability to adapt to the constant changes around him.
Forgetting may be considered a strength or weakness of memory, but it is a result of the way the brain works and absorbs all the inputs surrounding a person.

[4]https://www.scientificamerican.com/arabic/articles/from-the-magazine/can-we-learn-how-to-forget/ [5]https://human-memory.net/memory-storage/

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